Kirkuk. A Silent Giant Oilfield, GEO ExPro

March 2, 2015 at 2:18 am | Posted in Turkmens | Leave a comment

Kirkuk. A Silent Giant Oilfield, GEO ExPro

Kirkuk. A Silent Giant Oilfield
Munim Al-Rawi, Ph.D., Carta Design Ltd.
The giant Kirkuk field, discovered in 1927, has had a very chequered history and requires imaginative reservoir engineering methods to return it to optimum productivity.
This article appeared in Vol. 11, No. 6 – 2015
The Kirkuk oilfield is partly located in the Kirkuk Governorate in north-eastern Iraq and partly in the Erbil Governorate in Kurdistan Iraq. It was discovered by the Turkish Petroleum Company at Baba Gurgur in 1927 and was brought into production by the Iraq Petroleum Company (IPC) in 1934, which produced it until full nationalisation in 1972. From then it was operated by the Iraqi National Oil Company (INOC) until 1989 when the North Oil Company (NOC), a state-owned company, replaced INOC in the operation of the Kirkuk oilfield (see GEO ExPro Vol. 6 no. 2, Oil from Babylon to Iraq, for a fuller history of the discovery of the field). On 11 July 2014 Kurdistan Regional Government (KRG) forces seized control of the field, and it is reportedly pumping 120 Mbopd from Kirkuk and the nearby Bai Hassan field via the KRG export pipeline, which runs to the Turkish port of Ceyhan on the Sea.

Iraq’s oil and gas infrastructure. (Sources: Platts/Aqrawi et al 2010, reproduced with permission of Scientific Press)
This giant field, managed by different operators and at the centre of a very troubled and much fought over region, has silently suffered a great deal of reservoir damage.
Kirkuk includes three pay zones. The first, the Kirkuk Tertiary Reservoir, is the largest producing reservoir in Kirkuk and comprises 98% of Kirkuk’s recoverable reserves. The second and third pays in the Upper and Middle Cretaceous are small and non-producing.
The original oil in place reserves of Kirkuk were estimated at 38 Bbo. Since 1934, the field has remained the most important producer in northern Iraq, with over 8.9 Bbo proven remaining oil reserves in 2007. After eight decades in operation, and many reservoir problems, Kirkuk still produces 0.5 MMbopd.
In the subsurface, Kirkuk is an anticlinal structure trending northwest to south-east, 100 km long and 4 km wide at the original oil/water contact level in the Tertiary Reservoir. Structurally, it is composed of three domes, referred to, from south-east to north-west, as Baba, Avanah and Khurmala, which are separated by saddles, namely Amshe and Dibega. At the surface, however, it is a simple folded structure due to the Miocene salt flowage of the Lower Fars Formation.

Schematic cross-section of Kirkuk Baba Dome; not to scale. Modified after Dunnington, 1958, Figure 17.

Schematic longitudinal cross-section of Kirkuk field. Modified after Dunnington, 1958, Figure 18.

Reservoir Geology
The Eocene-Oligocene Kirkuk Tertiary Reservoir is 365m (1,200 ft) thick and consists of a series of extensively fractured limestones, some porcelaneous and some dolomitised. These limestones were deposited in a variety of environments, including back-reef/lagoonal, fore-reef, and basinal, and have a wide range of porosity and permeability properties. The Oligocene Bajawan, Baba, Tarjil, and Palani Formations, which belong to the Kirkuk Group, are producing in Baba Dome, while the Eocene below, namely the Avanah and Jaddala Formations, are producing in the Avanah and Khurmala Domes.
The oil is contained both in an extensive, extremely permeable but low-capacity fracture system and in a low-permeability but high-capacity, matrix-pore system. The porosity and permeability of the carbonates of the Kirkuk Group are usually good; some wells within the Baba Dome produced 100,000 bopd. The porosity ranges from 15 to 25% (averaging about 22%) and the average permeability is about 100 mD. The API gravity of oil ranges from 18° to 36° (average 30°) and was approximately 500 psi undersaturated at the original reservoir pressure of 1,100 psi. Sulphur content is 1.5–4%. The reservoir is underlain by a field-wide aquifer.
The other two reservoirs in the Kirkuk oilfield are the Upper Cretaceous Shiranish Formation and the Middle Cretaceous Upper Qamchuqa Formation. They are fractured carbonates, contain oil and gas, and are likely in communication with the first pay reservoirs. However, these reservoirs have been kept for pressure observation and were not commercially produced.

Eternal fires (burning gas seeps on the Baba Dome at Kirkuk) with Kirkuk production facilities in the background (photo taken on a field visit by BP in 1988). Photo courtesy Robin Cleverly/BP
Pushing Production Causes Problems
As of January 1989, the original oil in place reserves of the Kirkuk oilfield were estimated at 38,045 MMbo, proven remaining oil reserves were 10,238 MMbo, and the cumulative oil production to end 1988 was 12,017 MMbo. Proven remaining oil reserves were reported as of January 2007 to be 8,973 MMbo, including estimated reserves for Khurmala Dome of 2,800 MMbo in place with 1,000 MMbo recoverable.
Production at Kirkuk started in 1934 from the Kirkuk Tertiary Reservoir in the Baba and Avanah Domes only, continuing at a low rate for the first twenty years of production. From 1951, however, there was a rapid five-fold increase in production over just three years. The reservoir is characterised by a density of fractures in the entire structure, but particularly in the structurally higher zones. This quick increase in production resulted in a rapid decline in reservoir pressure, and caused the creation of secondary gas caps in both Baba and Avanah Domes, since the water drive force is weak, as well as a small rise in the oil/water contact.

Estimated reserves and production for the Kirkuk field.

To maintain reservoir pressure, it was decided to use water injection, with, as a temporary measure until the start of water injection, gas from the nearby Bai Hassan being injected into Kirkuk from 1957 to 1961; 200 Bcfg was injected in total.
Water injection started in 1961 at Amshe Saddle. Despite the wide distribution of injected water in the Baba and Avanah Domes, it did not reach the south-east part of Baba Dome or the north-west part of Avanah Dome in equal amounts, which caused a rise of the oil/water contact in the producing regions of Baba and Avanah Domes, which in turn had a domal effect on the contact. In 1970 water injection commenced in the Tarjil area (south-east of Baba Dome), followed in 1978 by water injection in north-west Avanah Dome.
.It is important to note that production of oil from the Kirkuk Tertiary Reservoir is done by the removal of oil from fractures, vugs and large pores through water swapping in a rapid or instantaneous manner, and also by imbibition, where water replaces oil in small pores, in a slow process that requires time. Assessment of the imbibition process and the rate of oil recovery and remaining oil in the flooded areas of the reservoir are the subject of ongoing reservoir engineering and laboratory studies.
A continuous increase in production rates requires the drilling of wells to replace those flooded by water because of the rising oil/water contact. The total numbers of wells drilled rose from 162 in 1964 to 230 by 1989.
Unique Reservoir Needs Help
An analysis of this outstanding Kirkuk Tertiary Reservoir reveals a number of factors affecting reservoir behaviour.
These include:
Kirkuk Tertiary Reservoir characteristics, Well K-115. Modified after INOC, 1987.
Calculating the actual percentage of fractures and vugs within the reservoir, which affects the oil reserves volume and recovery factor calculations of the original oil in place in rock matrix and fractures. Current estimates are that 95% of oil is in the matrix and 5% is in fractures.
Reservoir water salinity is low, dropping to 90,000 ppm. Measurements taken before the start of water injection indicate that it has changed in the three domes, which makes it difficult to calculate the original water saturation. Water injection has altered the salinity in the fracture areas.
Mud loss during well drilling in the highly fractured areas of the reservoir makes it difficult to measure reservoir resistivity and water saturation.
Due to the variation in the reservoir rock characteristics and fractures, it is also difficult to precisely simulate reservoir behaviour.
There are difficulties in evaluating the level of water saturation in flooded areas, and in estimating how much oil remains in the reservoir.
Declining crude oil qualities and increased ‘water cut’ (damaging intrusions of water into oil reservoirs) were probably the result of over pumping. Production from Kirkuk reached as high as 680,000 bpd, well above the field’s estimated optimal production rate of 250,000 bpd. Iraq attempted to sell as much oil as possible in the months leading up to the March/April 2003 war.
In addition, some analysts believe that poor reservoir management practices during the first Gulf war between 1981 and 1988, including the reinjection into the periphery of the Baba Dome of excess fuel oil (as much as 1.5 Bbo by one estimate), refinery residue and gas-stripped oil, may have seriously, even permanently, damaged the Kirkuk Tertiary producing reservoir. Among other problems, fuel oil reinjection has increased oil viscosity at Kirkuk, making it more difficult and expensive to get the oil out of the ground.
The unique Kirkuk Tertiary Reservoir has suffered a great deal from different management practices and will require imaginative reservoir engineering methods to put it back into good productive order. Some reappraisal has already been undertaken and will require full implementation on the ground to achieve results.
In September 2013, BP signed a letter of intent to help revive this ageing oilfield through a better understanding of the state of the Kirkuk reservoir. For BP, the agreement could be a first step toward clinching a longer-term development contract. Will the current political status in Iraq allow Kirkuk to be productive again?
Adnan A. M. Aqrawi, Jeremy Goff, Andrew D. Horbury and Fadhil N. Sadooni (2010), Petroleum Geology of Iraq, 424p, hard covers. ISBN 978 0 901360 36 8. Scientific Press Ltd, PO Box 21, Beaconsfield, Bucks, HP9 1NS, UK.
Dunnington, H.V., 1958. Generation, migration, accumulation, and dissipation of oil in northern Iraq. In: Weeks, L.G. (ed), Habitat of Oil, American Association of Petroleum Geologists, 1194-1251. Reprinted in GeoArabia, Vol. 10, No. 2, 2005, p. 39-84.. Gulf Petrolink, Bahrain.
INOC, 1987. Country Paper, Republic of Iraq, in Arabic, in OAPEC, 1987. Addendum of papers and case studies presented at the seminar on petroleum reservoirs. Kuwait, 11-14 October 1987.
Platts, 2014. Kurdish forces move to protect Iraq’s Kirkuk oil hub. June 12, 2014.


ISIS May Have Committed Genocide Against Iraq Minorities, Report Says

March 1, 2015 at 12:16 pm | Posted in Turkmens | Leave a comment

ISIS May Have Committed Genocide Against Iraq Minorities, Report Says

 Noah Rayman @noahrayman Feb. 27, 2015

SAFIN HAMED—AFP/Getty ImagesMembers of the Yazidi minority search for clues on February 3, 2015, that might lead them to missing relatives in the remains of people killed by the Islamic State (IS) jihadist group, a day after Kurdish forces discovered a mass grave near the Iraqi village of Sinuni, in the northwestern Sinjar area.
“Many minority communities continue to live under the threat of mass killing in Iraq,” an advocate said

The Islamic State of Iraq and Greater Syria (ISIS) has systematically targeted minorities in Iraq and may be guilty of committing genocide, a new report from human rights groupssays.

The report aims to shed light on the atrocities committed against minority religious groups, including Christians, Yazidis and Turkmen. Based largely on eyewitness accounts and field visits across Iraq, the report says ISIS has committed summary executions, sexual violence and torture that amount to crimes against humanity and possibly genocide.

“Information exists which would support a prima facie case that ISIS forces have committed the crime of genocide against religious minorities in northern Iraq, in particular against the Yezidi minority,” the report says.

The report, released in Brussels on Friday, comes days after ISIS kidnapped at least 90 Assyrian Christian men, women and children in Syria.

ISIS overran large swathes of Iraq last summer and seized the Iraqi city of Mosul in June. Reports of the group’s persecution of the Yazidi population in the country’s north in August helped pushed the White House to launch airstrikes against the extremist group, but the report says the minority groups continue to be at risk even as the U.S.-led coalition air-strikes have halted ISIS’s advance in Iraq. It calls on the international community to provide more support to Iraq’s displaced and persecuted minorities and to bring the ISIS perpetrators to justice.

‘While military action against ISIS dominates the headlines, to date there has been no serious effort to bring the perpetrators of crimes against minorities to justice,” William Spencer, director of the Institute of International Law and Human Rights, said in a statement. The report was co-authored by IILHR, Minority Rights Group International, No Peace Without Justice and The Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization.

Thousands of minority women and girls have been raped and forced into marriage, and the minority groups represent a disproportionate number of the more than 2 million people who have been displaced since January 2014, the report found. About 8,000 civilians were killed in the last six months of 2014, according to the United Nations.

“Many minority communities continue to live under the threat of mass killing in Iraq,” Mays Al-Juboori, civilian rights officer at MRG, said in a statement.


March 1, 2015 at 2:54 am | Posted in Turkmens | Leave a comment
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Launch of “Between the Millstones: Iraq’s Minorities Since the Fall of Mosul”

A report of a consortium of NGOs  

(Minority Rights Group, Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization, No Peace Without Justice and Institute for International Law and Human Rights).

Brussels, 27th February 2015.

Since June 2014, the rapid spread of ISIS (Islamic State of Iraq and al Sham) forces across northern Iraq has triggered a wave of displacement, with more than 2 million people uprooted.  Ethnic and religious minorities have been particularly targeted, including Turkmens, Christians, Yezidis, Kaka’is, and Shabaks, with thousands killed and many more injured or abducted.
Alison Smith, NPWJ; Johanna Green, UNPO; Mays Al-Juboori, MRG; William Spencer, HLHR
William Spencer, Institute for International Law and Human Rights and
Dr Hassan Aydinli, Iraqi Turkmen Front (ITF) EU Representative
Marino Busdachin, General Secretary of  UNPO and
Dr Hassan Aydinli, Iraqi Turkmen Front EU Representative.

Minority communities in Iraq have been targeted by the Islamic State of Iraq and al-Sham (ISIS) in a systematic strategy to remove them permanently from large areas of Iraq, warns a group of human rights organizations in their new report.

“Between the Millstones: Iraq’s Minorities Since the Fall of Mosul” provides critical information on the legal basis for war crimes prosecutions.

According to the report, the Iraqi government lacks a legal framework to address the rights and entitlements of the displaced people, it should clarify its role and responsibilities.

The Iraqi government and the Kurdish Regional Government should investigate and prosecute corruption in the delivery and acquisition of humanitarian aid and make sure that humanitarian aid is fairly divided among the displaced people.

The Iraqi government should provide urgent assistance to the humanitarian effort and resettle minorities who have been displaced.

Summary executions, forced conversion, rape, sexual enslavement, the destruction of places of worship, the abduction of children, the looting of property and other severe human rights abuses and crimes under international law have been committed repeatedly by ISIS.  While minorities have long been vulnerable to attacks by extremists, this violence appears to be part of a systematic strategy to remove these communities permanently from areas where they have lived for centuries.

For these groups to have a future in the country, Iraqi and Kurdish authorities, the international community and other stakeholders must work together not only to ensure their immediate security, but also take steps through comprehensive legal and social reform to bring an end to their long-standing marginalization and prevent further abuses.

All IDPs are suffering especially minority women.

Regarding the TURKMENS, the report states that prior to June 2014, Turkmens were intimidated by Kurdish and Central government authorities, as well as by extra-judicial militias, on religious and ethnic grounds as well as for the presence in the ‘disputed territories’. More recently, Shi’a Turkmens have been summarily executed by ISIS fighters.

The reports also states that Iraq’s Turkmen community has strong support from Turkmen diaspora organizations such as the Europe-Turkmen Friendshipsand other groups.

Concerning TURKMEN SITES, the report says:

As ISIS forces swept through Tal Afar and the surrounding areas in June and July 2014, numerous Turkmen mosques, shrines and religious and cultural sites were destroyed or desecrated, including Shi’a mosques in the villages of hardaghli, Brauchli and Qaranaz, all of which until recently had a large Turkmen population.  ISIS forces also destroyed the shrine of Arnaour and the Shi’a mosques of Husseiniyh al-Qubba, Husseiniyh Jawad, Husseiniyh Kaddo, Husseiniyh Muslim Bin-Aqeel and Husseiniyh Askar-Mullah in Tal Afar. The largest and oldest library in the Tal Afar district was also blown up – a huge blow to the Turkmen population. Another library in the Diyala governorate, with some 1,500 Islamic historical texts and stories, was reportedly burnt to the ground by ISIS forces.

In Mosul the tomb of Ibn al-Athir was destroyed, and the shrine of Imam al-Abbas in al-Qubba village and three Shi’a mosquess were set ablaze by ISIS militants in the village of Al-Sharikhan. ISIS forces reportedly used bulldozers in the Turkmnn town of al-Mahlabia to destroy the shrines of Sheikh Ibrahim and the shrine and tomb of the Sufi Sheikh Ahmed Rifa’i.

Shi’a mosques and other sites of religious significance were reportedly set on fire by ISIS forces in the Turkmen towns of Qubba and Qubbek, in Tal Afar district.

Several important Sunni shrines were also reportedly destroyed in Mosul and Kirkuk, including the shrine of Sufi Salih, in addition to some Kaka’i shrines. Two Shi’a shrines in Sinjar – Sayida Zainab and Saiyed Zakariya – were also destroyed, as well as the Shi’a holy shrine of Imam Ridha in Tiskhrab village.

In the Tukmen village of Chardaghli, a Sunni mosque was destroyed along with three Shi’a mosques. In the Turkmen village of Staeh, Sunni and Shi’a mosques as well as Yezidi religious shrines were destroyed.

The report also mentions the Denial of Entry issue that minority communities have experienced from certain areas of Iraq, particularly by Kurdish forces. The KRG has been criticized by numerous human rights activists for applying discriminatory rules based on ethnicity and religion, with Assyrians, Kurds and Yezidis typically being permitted to enter the Iraqi Kurdish region, while Iraqi Turkme and Shi’a and Sunni Arabs have been denied access.

Regarding Employment and Education, the report states that though children have the right to be educate in their mother tongue under the Iraqi Constitution of 2005, this has not been respected.
In the Iraqi Kurdish Region minority groups are pressured to be educated in Kurdish and fincancial incentives are used to promote the language. Provision of education in the children’s native tongue is also under-resourced in Iraq: many Turkmen communities, for example, have struggled to access education in their own language. 

On the Sexual and gender-base violence, the report says:
There have been numerous reports of sexual abuse, rape, abductions, enslavement and other violations of a sexual nature perpetrated by ISIS militants on women and children across Iraq.
In many cases, sexual violence has been used as a tool of terror and coercion. In one incident on 12-13 June 2014, ISIS forces reportedly raped and killed at least nine women and girls as young as 12 years old in the Turkmen town of BESHIR. The bodies of the women were then stripped naked and hung from lamp posts and water tanks around the town. 

The report also says that some Turkmen and Yezidi children left by ISIS forces in an orphanage in Mosul showed signs of being physically and sexually assaulted.

While Yezidi women have been especially targeted, at least several hundred Shi’a women, mostly Turkmen, have also been kidnapped and sold into sexual slavery by ISIS, as well as Christian women.

Finally the report makes several recommendations to the Federal Government of Iraq, to the Kurdish Regional Government and to the International Community, to prevent further abuses and for the Restoration and Reconciliation.


The ethnic cleansing of Turkmens continues in Iraq

February 8, 2015 at 1:47 pm | Posted in Turkmens | Leave a comment
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Merry Fitzgerald's photo.

While the ethnic cleansing of Turkmens continues in Iraq and while the Turkmens’ human rights continue to be violated, the U.S. and the E.U. are arming the terrorist group PKK and Barzani’s peshmerga.

Turkmens in Iraq have been and are still victims of : massacres, ethnic cleansing, oppression, disappearances, expropriations, land grabbings, kidnappings, torture, arbitrary arrests, killings. Turkmens were victims of forced arabization under the Baath regime and are victims of forced kurdification since the U.S-U.K invasion of the country in 2003.

Despite the regime change in 2003 Turkmens continue to be treated as second class citizens in Iraq. The Arab government in Baghdad and the Kurdish Regional Government are only interested in occupying and reaping the benefits from the oil-rich and fertile Turkmen region in the north of Iraq (called TURKMENELI).

Turkmens, although they are Iraq’s third main ethnic community and the north of Iraq’s second main ethnic community, have never received their share of Kirkuk’s oil, they have never been included in the distribution of the wealth from their land.

It is the Arabs (both Sunna and Shia) and the Kurds who are sharing the wealth of the Turkmen region.

Since 2014 the Kurds have taken control of the entire Turkmen region by force, they are FALSELY claiming that KIRKUK is Kurdish with the intention to annex it to their autonomous region.

When Turkmen cities and villages were attacked and invaded by ISIL terrorists in 2014, nobody came to their rescue. When the Turkmen city of AMIRLI was besieged during 73 days, neither the Iraqi army nor the Kurdish peshmerga who were stationed nearby tried to protect the unarmed population of this city.

AMIRLI did not get the attention of the ‘international community’ like Kobane. No one shed a tear for this unfortunate Turkmen city.

In the meantime, the U.S. and the E.U. are arming the terrorist group PKK and Barzani’s peshmerga.

I hope that Turkmens have been keeping records and have started to document all the grave human rights violations their community has suffered since 1921 (since the beginning of the Iraqi state).

Merry Fitzgerald

The Long Haul – Rebooting U.S. security cooperation in Iraq – Michael Knights

January 25, 2015 at 10:59 pm | Posted in Turkmens | Leave a comment

The Long Haul – Rebooting U.S. security cooperation in Iraq – Michael Knights – The Washington Institute for Near East Policy

Contents (89 pages)


v Acronyms

vi Executive Summary

viii 1 Introduction

Federal Government Security Forces in Iraq

Security Forces in Iraqi Kurdistan

Optimizing U.S. Security Cooperation in Iraq

Issues and Options for U.S. Policymakers

About the Author

MICHAEL KNIGHTS is a Lafer fellow at The Washington Institute, specializing in the political and security affairs of Iraq, Iran, Yemen, and the Gulf Arab states. He has traveled into Iraq annually to support and meet with Iraqi and Kurdish ministries, local government leaders, and security forces; he has worked in every Iraqi province and most of the hundred districts of Iraq. Dr. Knights received his PhD in Iraqi military history at the Department of War Studies, King’s College, London. His analysis appears regularly in outlets including the Washington Post, Foreign Policy, Foreign Affairs, the West Point Sentinel, Politico, and Jane’s IHS. He also provides expert testimony at congressional hearings.


Effective Combat Manpower of Iraq Security Forces

Assessment of ISF and Kurdish Forces as Security Cooperation Partners


My thanks to a range of colleagues for their encouragement and assistance in the writing of this study. The Washington Institute for Near East Policy provides the ideal setting for serious policy research: it attained a significant public profile during the first Gulf War against Saddam’s Iraq in 1991 and Iraq continues to be a core focus. For this I would like to thank its executive director, Rob Satloff, managing director, Michael Singh, and research director, Patrick Clawson for their sponsorship and support of the project. Program heads Michael Eisenstadt and David Schenker were very generous with their time, providing line-by-line commentary on drafts of the final text. Ambassador James Jeffrey, David Pollock, Jeff White and the Military Fellows team were also stalwart in their support.

The author has a special thank you for our wonderful publications director, Mary Kalbach Horan, who worked round-theclock and over weekends to bring the study to completion. Going forward I know I will owe a debt of gratitude to director Jeff Rubin and TWI’s workhouse communications department. Beyond the Institute I want to thank the real experts on the Iraqi Security Forces: D.J. Elliott, for maintaining an Iraqi order of battle for well over half a decade; the Olive Group intelligence analysts, still working at the coal face in Iraq; Loveday Morris, intrepid Washington Post reporter of the ISF; Ahmed Ali and the Institute for the Study of War crew; Colonel Joel Rayburn; the prolific Alex Mello; and General Mark Kimmitt (ret.) for continuing to support the Iraqi Security Forces with their urgent needs every day. I also want to thank all the U.S. and Iraqi officials who spoke to me about this study and in previous years, inside and outside Iraq.

Finally I want to dedicate the study to the Iraqi servicemen and civilians— Arabs, Kurds, Turkmen, Assyrians, Yezidis, Shabak—who are still fighting, and the Americans and other international partners involved in continuing Iraq’s quest for peace, stability, and fairness.

Michael Knights January 2015


Nejdet Koçak günü – Amsterdam

January 17, 2015 at 11:50 pm | Posted in Turkmens | Leave a comment

affiche necet

Iraqi Turkmen, Chaldean-Syriac-Assyrian and Yezidi representatives to the European Union meet in Brussels

January 10, 2015 at 8:44 am | Posted in Turkmens | Leave a comment

Iraqi Turkmen, Chaldean-Syriac-Assyrian and Yezidi representatives to the European Union meet in Brussels


8th January 2015 – Iraqi Turkmen, Chaldean-Syriac-Assyrian and Yezidi representatives in the European Union meet in Brussels to discuss the road map. 


Dr. Hassan Aydinli, Turkmen Representation to EU
Mr. Lahdo Hobil, President European Syriac Union
Mr. Fikret Igrek, Head of Foreign Affairs Federation of Yezidi Associations 


Mr. Johannes de Jong, Ms. Rima Tüzün and Mrs. Merry Fitzgerald attended the meeting.


Following the signing of their Common Declaration at the European Parliament on 19th
November 2014, calling for the restoration of human rights to the non-ruling indigenous peoples of Iraq, the Turkmen, Yezidi and Chaldean-Syriac-Assyrian representatives to the EU, met to discuss the road map.


The first goal of this road map is to achieve a situation in which the EU together with each of the peoples concerned will negotiate with the governments of Iraq and Iraqi Kurdistan.


The second goal of this road map is to outline how the transition to a new and sustainable political future should look like.


This process is the implementation of the fourth article of the European Parliament resolution on Iraq and Syria of 18th September 2014.


Below photos of the signing of the Common Declaration on 19th November 2014 and translation of the Declaration to Turkish.
Please see:

No news from 136 Turkmens kidnapped by jihadists

December 30, 2014 at 11:20 am | Posted in Turkmens | Leave a comment

No news from 136 Turkmens kidnapped by jihadists

There has been no news from the 136 Turkmen hostages who were kidnapped by jihadists in Tal Afar in Iraq more than three months ago.

The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) has kept the hostages in Mosul for three months; however, there has been no information for the past 10 days and their destination following Mosul is not known. There are five-month-old babies among the 136 hostages, 74 of whom are children and 62 of whom are women between 18 and 35-years-old.

“We have not been able to hear from our women and children. Somebody should hear our plea,” said Kadriye Ziyai, the head of Turkmen Women’s League.

The list of hostages was given to Turkey’s Prime Minister Ahmet Davutoğlu during his visit to the neighboring country in the second half of November.

“He [Davutoğlu] told us he would take care of the matter. However, we haven’t heard from our women and children for 10 days,” said Aydın Maruf Selim of the Iraqi Turkmen Front (ITC).

“I’m calling on humankind. There are five-month-old babies among these hostages. The eldest child is 11-years-old. They were being kept in Mosul, but they were taken somewhere else 10 days ago. We don’t know their fate. Humanity should not remain silent to such a massacre. ISIL militants are raising these children as future suicide bombers. They kill those who are ill and useless for them,” Selim said.
Tal Afar, a city of 200,000 located 420 kilometers (260 miles) northwest of Baghdad, is dominated by ethnic Turkmen, who are both Sunni and Shiite.

According to a recently released report by Iraq’s Ministry of Displacement and Migration, around 6,000 Turkmen and Yazidis have been killed in attacks by ISIL since June.

Around 5,000 Yazidis and 1,000 Turkmen have been killed in ISIL attacks, said the same report, state-run Anadolu Agency reported earlier this month.

The report puts the number of displaced people at 1 million, including 400,000 Yazidis, and 600,000 Turkmen who have fled to safer regions.


December 5, 2014 at 8:20 pm | Posted in Dr Hassan Aydinli's message to MEPs, ITF EU message to MEPs | Leave a comment




European Representation

Brussels – Belgium



Who are the Iraqi Turkmens

The Turkmens of Iraq are a Turkic people, they are the descendants of the Turkish OGUZ tribes originating in Central Asia. They arrived in Mesopotamia (Iraq) in several successive waves and settled there more than 1400 years ago. The overall Turkmen region in Iraq is called Turkmeneli, it lies between the Kurdish region in the northeast and the Arab region in the southwest. It includes territories in the provinces of Mosul, Erbil, Kirkuk, Salaheddin, Diyala and Kut.


Since there is no accurate and reliable census data in Iraq, one cannot be sure about the exact numbers of the Turkmens, however, it is estimated to be around three million, which is roughly 9% of the Iraqi population. in the 1997 census, ‘Turkmen’ as a nationality was removed from the official census forms, Turkmens had to register either as Arabs or Kurds. The largest concentration of Turkmens lives in the city of Kirkuk, which they consider as their capital city and main cultural centre. A great number of Turkmens also live in Baghdad. We are a clear majority in Tal Afar, Tuzhurmatu and Kifri.

Demographic changes and confiscation of Turkmen lands

Several demographic changes have taken place in the Turkmen region, especially in Kirkuk province  and Kirkuk city. In the 1980s the Baath regime installed tens of thousands of Arab families on Turkmen lands, several Turkmen villages were totally destroyed and their inhabitants were forcedly displaced without receiving any compensation. The largest demographic change happened in Kirkuk under U.S. occupation in 2003 when the Kurdish leaders brought over 600.000 Kurds from other areas in Iraq and settled them in the city. Today, there is ongoing pressure by Kurdish and Arab authorities to shift the Turkmen population to different areas to continue the demographic change.

Human rights violations

Since the beginning of the Iraqi state in 1921 Turkmens were treated as second class citizens, their basic human rights were denied and their political leaders and intellectuals were killed. Since 2003 the Turkmen political leaders, academics, professionals have been especially targeted and assassinated, dozens of them were kidnapped for ransom. Turkmen areas are suffering under targeted attacks. Turkmens are easy targets as they are not allowed to have their own self-defence forces. Arabs and Kurds can get benefit from governmental financial sources while Turkmens do not. Even at 1st November 2014 the new Iraqi Parliament rejected the one bill that would recognize Turkmens’ rights. This proves that the discrimination against the Turkmens continues.

Internally displaced Turkmens due to IS attacks

Since June 2014, many Turkmen cities and villages have been attacked and occupied by IS. 350.000 Turkmens had to flee leaving everything behind and many were tortured and killed (in Tel Afer, Bashir, Biravceli, Amerli, Kara Tepe, etc). Neither the Iraqi army which was supposed to protect them nor the Kurdish Peshmerga forces came to their help. Thousands of these Turkmen IDPs are now living under dire conditions in transit camps in the Kurdish region and in mosques and schools in Kirkuk. Thousands of other Turkmen families were taken to the south of Iraq where they were given shelter in schools and mosques. Wherever they are these internally displaced Turkmen families have hardly received any help from the Iraqi government, to survive they can only rely on humanitarian help from fellow Turkmens, Turkmen and Turkish NGOs.

What is needed for our survival

To survive and be recognised as part of Iraq we formulated the conditions for our survival as an Iraqi people in the Common ‘Declaration of the Turkmen, Chaldean-Syriac-Assyrian and Ezidi Kurdic people of Iraq’ which has been signed and presented at 19 November 2014 in the European Parliament.


Brussels,  4th December 2014.

Contact: Dr. Hassan Tawfiq Aydinli, Iraqi Turkmen Front EU Representative

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VIDEO – Iraklı Türkmenler, Keldaniler, Süryaniler, Asuriler ve Kürt Yezidilerin ortak bildirgesi

December 2, 2014 at 12:15 am | Posted in Turkmens | Leave a comment
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VIDEO – Turkmen, Chaldean-Syriac-Assyrian and Yazidi people of Iraq’s conference and signing of the common declaration at the European Parliament on 19th November 2014.

 Iraklı Türkmenler, Keldaniler, Süryaniler, Asuriler ve Kürt Yezidilerin ortak bildirgesi

Hükümi varlığı olmayan kadim Irak haklarına insan haklarının düzeltilmesi için çağrı

To watch excerpts of the Turkmen, Chaldean-Syriac-Assyrian and Yazidi people of Iraq’s conference and signing of the common declaration in the European Parliament on 19th November 2014

Please click on this link: 

TD Konferans ESU Parlamento Urifi

With thanks to Suroyotvnews.


Please note that the speeches of Dr. Hassan Aydinli and Prof. Mahir Nakip were accompanied by a PowerPoint presentation showing maps and photos of Turkmen confiscated lands, internally displaced Turkmens and Turkmen martyrs.

The original written presentations of both Dr. Hassan Aydinli and Prof. Dr. Mahir Nakip had to be shortened during the conference because of lack of time as the conference had started later than expected.




Translation of the Common Declaration in Turkish:



Avrupa Birliği Temsilciliği



 Iraklı Türkmenler, Keldaniler, Süryaniler, Asuriler ve Kürt Yezidilerin ortak bildirgesi

Hükümi varlığı olmayan kadim Irak haklarına insan haklarının düzeltilmesi için çağrı

Biz Irak halklarından Kaldaniler, Süryaniler, Asuriler, Türkmenler ve Yezidi Kürtler, bu ülkeye ait bireyler olarak bir araya geldik. Halklarımız, Irakta yaşayan milletimizi teşkil eden diğer halklar ile birlikte aynı haklara sahip, Irak’ın kadim yurttaşlarıdır.

Halklarımızın her biri, gerçekte mevcudiyetleri Irakta ve uluslararası toplumlarda yeterince tanınmamalarından dolayı, on yıllarca mağdur olmuşlardır. Bu etnik, kültür ve inançlarımızın yeterince tanınmaması hepimizi, ayırımcılık, aşırı derecede kötü muamele ve etnik ve kültürel yok etme ile karşı karşıya bırakmıştır.

Şimdi bizler, ISIS (IŞID)* denilen Şerir tarafından, Irakta ki yerleşkelerimizden sürülmüş durumdayız. Tahrip etmekten ve öldürmekten başka bir şey bilmeyen bu Şerir hayal edilemeyecek bir şekilde halklarımıza saldırmıştır. Çocuklar boğazlanmış, kadınlar tecavüze uğramış ve satılmış, erkekler katil ve işkence edilmişlerdir. IŞİD’e karşı savaş bir dinsel savaş değildir fakat temelde insanlık adına bir savaştır.

Bu mevcut krizin ışığında, içinde halklarımızın her birinin ülkemizin bir parçası olarak tanınması ve etnik, kültür ve inanç kimliğimizin korunabilmesi yönünde çalışmak üzere ortak bir gelecek için bütünleştik.

Amacımız ülkemizin zengin çeşitliliğini sürdürmek ve katkıda bulunmak ve barış dolu ortak bir gelecek için aynı arzuları paylaşan komşu halkaların çabalarını desteklemektir.

Biz mağdurlar olarak işlem görmek istemiyoruz, biz Irak’ın eşit haklara sahip vatandaşları olarak tanınmak istiyoruz.


Biz; tarihsel (ve hâlihazırda) yaşamakta olduğumuz topraklarımızda komşularımız için korkmadan ve kendi kimliğimizi gizlemeye gerek duymadan Türkmenler, Yezidi Kürtler ve Kaldaniler-Süryaniler-Asuriler kimliği ile Irak’ın eşit haklara sahip vatandaşları olarak tanınmaya ve kendi idari yönetimimize sahip olması gerektiği olduğu sonucuna vardık.

Biz Yezidi Kürtler Sinjar’a dönmek ve orada yaşamak istiyoruz, biz Türkmenler Irak’ta** ki kendi ana yurtlarımıza dönmek ve oralarda yaşamak istiyoruz ve biz Kaldaniler-Süryaniler-Asuriler Ninova yaylasına dönmek ve orada yaşamak istiyoruz. Biz hepimiz kendi yurtlarımızda dışlanmış azınlıklar değil fakat Irak yurttaşı ve Irak’ın kabullenilmiş halkları olarak yaşamak istiyoruz. Bu üzücü durumdur ki şimdi bizler karşı karşıya bırakılmaktayız.

Bu nedenledir ki bizim, hem Irak Kürdistan Bölgesi hükümeti hem de Irak Merkezi hükümeti ile uyumlu olan, yöresel bağımsızlığımızın ve kendi yönetimimizin olması gerekecektir.

Bu; Sinjar, Tal Afar, Tezehurmatu, Tuzhurmatu, Kifri ve Ninova bölgelerinde kendi meclisimizi seçecek ve bu meclislerin sorumluluğu altında kendi savunma gücümüzü oluşturacağız. Bu meclislerle biz kendi yönetimlerimizi kontrol edeceğiz***. Meclisler bu bölgelerde ki yaşayanlar söz sahibi olacaklar ve temsil edileceklerdir. Hepsi de eşit demokratik ve temel haklara sahip olacaklardır.

Bu bildirgede bahsedilen bölgelerde ki halklarımız**** ayırımcılık nedeniyle kendi gelişimlerinde geri kalmışlardır. Bu bölgeler için halklarımızın paylaşacağı Irak’ın varlıklarından özel yatırım fonuna ihtiyaç olacaktır. Daha fazlası, IŞİD’in sebep olduğu hasarlar ışığında AB’yi ve ABD’yi, bu bölgelerde gerektiğinde yeniden inşada kullanılmak için, kısa süreli ortak bir yeniden inşa fonu tahsis etmeye çağırıyoruz. Halklarımız bu fonlarla kendi topraklarını yeniden inşa etmek için çalışmayı dört gözle bekleyeceklerdir. Son olarak AB’den Irak’a tahsis edilen mevcut AB fonunu bizim halkımızın da paylaştığını gözlemesini talep ediyoruz. Bu yeni uygulamayı önerirken komşularımızdan izole edilmiş bir şekilde yaşamak istemiyoruz. Biz halklarımızın Iraklı Arap ve Kürt komşularımız birlikteliğimizi devam ettirmek istiyoruz. Dünyamızın muhteşem mozaiği, medeniyetler beşiği Ortadoğu’da, değişik halkların oluşturduğu emsalsiz birliktelikle yaşamak bizim en derin arzumuzdur.

AB’yi ve ABD’yi biz halklarımızla ve Kürt Bölgesel Yönetimiyle ve Irak Yönetimiyle birlikte çalışarak bu hedefleri gerçekleştirmeye davet ediyoruz. Kürt Bölgesel Yönetimini ve Irak Yönetimini, Irak’ın kültürel zenginliklerini muhafaza etmek ve başarıya ulaşmak için, bu sonuca ulaşmanın önemini idrak etmesini talep ediyoruz.

Federation of Ezidi Associations, Fikret Igrek – Head of Foreign Affairs: _____________________

Iraqi Turkmen Front, Dr. Hassan Aydinli – EU Representative: ________________________

European Syriac Union, Lahdo Hobil – President: ________________________________________

Dip notları :-

* Biz  Ninova Vilayetinde ki, Sinjar, Tal Afar ve Ninova Düzlüğünden; Kerkük vilayetinde ki, Türkmen alt idari bölgeleri Beşir ve Taze’den; Salahaddin Vilayetinde ki, Türkmen  alt idari bölgeleri Biravcili, Kara Naz, Çardağlı, Bastamlı ve Tuzhurmatu bölgesinde bulunan Türkmen Bayat kabilesine ait birçok köylerden; Diyala Vilayetinde ki, Kifri, Karatepe, Jalawla ve Salman Beg idari ve alt idari bölgelerinden sürüldük.

**Tal Afar, Beşir, Tazehurmatu, Biravcili, Amerli, Kara Naz, Kifri, Kara Tepe, Jalawla ve Salman Beg vb.

*** Türkmen halkı; Tal Afar’ın ve Tuzhurmatu’nun iki büyük idari bölgesinin Irak’ın 19ncu ve 20nci vilayetleri statüsüne yükseltilmesini ve Kerkük Eyalet anlaşmazlığının, Irak’ın 8 Mart 2004 tarihli Geçici İdari Kanununun 53 ncü Maddesi C. Fıkrasına göre (Kerkük’ün Özel Statüsü)  ve üç ana etnik toplum arasında eşit güç paylaşımı ile çözümlenmesi arzu ederler. Kaldani-Süryani-Asuri (CSA) halkları; Özerklik bölgesinin Ninova Düzlüğünün 3 idari bölgesinden ve Ninova Düzlüğünde ki Alqosh’tan başlayarak Musul Barajına, Fayda’dan Fishaboor dahil Simele’ye kadar olmasın arzu ederler.  Bu özerk bölge bahsedilen şartarla Irak Kürdistan’ının bir parçası olacaktır.  Birçok CSA halkı Kürdistan’nın Kanimasi (Berwari Bala coğrafyası),  Sanrsing (Wadi d’Sapna coğrafyası) ve Aqra (Nahla Düzlüğünde) idari bölgeleri ile birlikte, Erbil ayaletinde ( Shaklawa, Ankawa, Diyana ve Hawdiyan) ve Sülemaniye ayaletinde (Armota ve Köysancak) bölgelerinde yaşamaktadırlar.  CSA halkı bu bahsedilen bölgelerin kendi özerk idare ve kanunların altında olmasını arzu ederler. Bağdat, Basra, Kerkük ve Musul’da yaşayan CSA halkı bu özerkliğe sahip olacaktır. CSA halkı ve Yezidi Kürtler, Ninova Düzlüğünde (Shekhan idari bölgesi ve Lalesh) ki Yezidi çoğunluğun bulunduğu yerlerde mahdut ve eşit haklar sağlayan çözümlere erişmek için, birlikte çalışacaklardır. Yezidi Kürtler, bahsedilen şartlar altında, Sinjar’ın Irak Kürdistan’ına dâhil edilmesini arzu ederler. Ek olarak Akra idari bölgesinde Hanik’in ve Duhok vilayetinde Shariya’nın kendi özerk idare ve kanunların altında yaşamasını arzu ederler.

**** Sinjar, Tal Afar ve Ninova Düzlüğü ; Kerkük vilayeti ve etrafında ki Türkmen idari bölgeleri ile birlikte; Salaheddin vilayetinde Tuzhurmatu idari bölgesi ve Diyala vilayetinde Kifri idari bölgesi.

(Dip notları bu bildirgenin tamamlayıcı unsurlarıdır)

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