Iraq: A decade of abuses, Amnesty International

March 12, 2013 at 11:33 am | Posted in Turkmens | Leave a comment
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Iraq: A decade of abuses

http://www.amnesty.org/fr/library/info/MDE14/001/2013/en
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Index AI : MDE 14/001/2013
Date de publication : 11 mars 2013
Catégorie(s) : Irak

Ten years after the US-led invasion that overthrew President Saddam Hussein, Iraq remains mired in human rights abuses. Armed groups opposed to the government continue to kill and maim large numbers of civilians in suicide and other bomb attacks. In response, the authorities have engaged in widespread detentions, torture, unfair trials and executions. This report describes some of the worst human rights abuses in Iraq today and calls for urgent state action to address them and ensure full accountability.

CONTENTS
1. INTRODUCTION ………………………………………………………………………………………….7
2. TORTURE AND OTHER ILL-TREATMENT OF DETAINEES ……………………………………12
2.1 Abu Ghraib and the period of occupation, March 2003-June 2004…………………….12
2.2 The end of occupation to the departure of foreign forces,
June 2004-December 2011 ………………………………………………………………………….14
2.2.1 Detention and torture under the new Iraqi authorities………………………………..14
2.2.2 The role of Coalition Forces ………………………………………………………………..14
2.2.3 Transfer of detainees to Iraqi custody ……………………………………………………16
2.2.4 Enforced disappearance and secret detention………………………………………….16
3. TORTURE AND OTHER ILL-TREATMENT OF DETAINEES SINCE THE DEPARTURE OF
FOREIGN MILITARY FORCES, DECEMBER 2011 ………………………………………………….19
3.1 Popular protests against torture of detainees and other abuses of due process……….20
3.2 Torture and other ill-treatment: women detainees…………………………………………..21
3.3 Torture and other ill-treatment: voices of survivors………………………………………….23
3.3.1 Ramadi, Anbar Province…………………………………………………………………….23
3.3.2 Kerbela …………………………………………………………………………………………24
3.3.3 Suleimaniya, Kurdistan Region ……………………………………………………………24
3.4 Deaths in detention………………………………………………………………………………..25
4. LACK OF DUE PROCESS AND UNFAIR TRIALS…………………………………………………28
4.1 Arrests without warrant and detention in breach of judicial release orders…………….29
4.2 Prolonged detention without trial……………………………………………………………….30
4.3 Incommunicado detention ……………………………………………………………………….32
4.3.1 Denial of access to lawyers…………………………………………………………………324.3.2 Denial of access to family …………………………………………………………………. 33
4.3.3 Incommunicado detention in the Kurdistan Region………………………………….. 33
4.4 Legal safeguards against torture and other ill-treatment ………………………………. 34
4.5 Coerced “confessions”…………………………………………………………………………… 36
4.6 Televised “confessions”…………………………………………………………………………. 37
4.6.1. Televised “confessions” and the al-Hashemi case ………………………………….. 38
4.6.2 “Confessions” in televised interviews …………………………………………………… 39
4.6.3 Conflicting “confessions”………………………………………………………………….. 40
4.7 Courts’ reliance on contested “confessions”………………………………………………… 40
4.7.1 Conviction on the basis on a contested “confession” ……………………………….. 42
4.7.2 Contested “confessions” resulting in death sentences………………………………. 43
4.8. Use of secret informants ……………………………………………………………………….. 45
5. DEATH PENALTY ……………………………………………………………………………………… 48
5.1 The legal framework ……………………………………………………………………………… 49
5.2. Calls for review of the Anti-Terrorism Law ………………………………………………….. 50
5.3 Women on death row …………………………………………………………………………….. 50
5.4. Juvenile offenders ……………………………………………………………………………….. 50
5.5 Death sentences for non-lethal crimes……………………………………………………….. 51
5.6 Other Arab nationals on death row ……………………………………………………………. 51
5.7 Death sentences imposed by the Supreme Iraqi Criminal Tribunal…………………….. 52
5.8 Death penalty in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq ……………………………………………… 52
5.9 Case examples: prisoners sentenced to death after withdrawing pre-trial “confessions”
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 52
5.9.1 Death sentences by the Central Criminal Court, Baghdad ………………………….. 53
5.9.2 Death sentences by the Resafa Criminal Court, Baghdad…………………………… 575.9.3 Death sentences by the Dhi Qar Criminal Court, Nasseriya ………………………….58
5.9.4 Death sentences by the Anbar Criminal Court ………………………………………….58
5.9.5 Death sentences by the Diyala Criminal Court………………………………………….60
5.9.6 Death sentences by the Kerbela Criminal Court………………………………………..60
5.9.7 Death sentence by the Najaf Criminal Court ……………………………………………60
5.9.8 Death sentences imposed by the Dohuk Criminal Court, Kurdistan Region………60
6. ACCOUNTABILITY FOR ABUSES……………………………………………………………………61
6.1. Accountability for abuses by Iraqi forces …………………………………………………….61
6.2 Accountability for abuses by US forces ……………………………………………………….63
6.2.1 Blocking remedy………………………………………………………………………………66
6.3 Accountability for abuses by UK forces ……………………………………………………….66
6.3.1 Al-Skeini ……………………………………………………………………………………….67
6.3.2 Baha Mousa……………………………………………………………………………………67
6.3.3. Al-Sweady……………………………………………………………………………………..69
6.3.4 Ali Zaki Mousa and the Iraq Historic Allegations Team ………………………………69
7. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS…………………………………………………..71
Stop torture and other ill-treatment ………………………………………………………………71
Guarantee due process and the right of fair trial in practice as well as in law …………..72
Cease executions and stop using the death penalty …………………………………………..73
ANNEX IRAQ: OVERVIEW 2003- 2013…………………………………………………………….75
ENDNOTES………………………………………………………………………………………………….

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